The Internet is not new. It has existed, in one form or another, since the 1960s. Since that time, it has been primarily the domain of the engineers and the other technology-minded individuals that built it.
The organizations that were put in place to govern it predate the huge growth in end users the Internet experienced in the 2000s. These organizations were set up by the technology community to deal with technological issues. They are able, in structure and capacity, to deal with technological issues.
The issues facing the Internet in 2014, however, are very different from those in 1998. Issues of cyber-crime, online surveillance, copyright and trademark protection, and so on, are issues of public policy, not governance. Even IPv6 and DNSSEC have primarily moved from the technology sphere to the policy sphere with their current challenge of adoption and implementation.
Fundamentally, the Internet governance ecosystem has moved from discussions of ‘how it works’ to ‘how it’s used’, and structures like ICANN do not have the capacity, or mandate, to deal with these issues. However, the Internet Governance Forum (IGF), created in 2006, is an annual multi-stakeholder forum for discussing Internet policy issues. While it has no binding outcomes, it is widely regarded as an important part of the Internet ecosystem.
It’s no secret that the IGF has struggled with a lack of funding for a number of years. I firmly believe that if we don’t step up and provide financial support to IGF today, we will have an important missed opportunity.
That’s why at the recent NETmundial meeting in Brazil, CIRA joined a group of ccTLDs to financially support the IGF. Together, we committed a minimum of $100,000 per year for several years. Participating registries include .AU (Australia), .DK (Denmark), .CN (China), .NL (Netherlands), .UK (United Kingdom), .BR (Brazil) and .MX (Mexico). I expect other ccTLDs to join us soon.
The IGF provides the ideal venue to discuss issues of how the Internet is used – public policy issues – in an open, multi-stakeholder and inviting forum. It provides an arena for discussions that have no other place. Because it is a United Nations-coordinated entity, it is approachable for newcomers to the governance ecosystem – the developing world, those two billion people we are about to bring online.
Let’s face it, fora like ICANN are easy for those of us on the inside. Our organizations, primarily based in the developed world, have been participants since the early days of the public Internet. However, what is easy for us may not be as inviting, or comfortable, for those who are not coming to the table with the same political and philosophical groundings – the governments and other representative bodies from the developing world. We need recognize the fact that the decisions we make today about the structures that govern the Internet need to work for both the newcomers and those of us who have been on the inside of Internet for many years.
The IGF bridges this gap.
The group of ccTLDs CIRA has joined believe the IGF is a critical entity in the Internet governance ecosystem. We are prepared to demonstrate our commitment to it with financial support. I’d like to call on other organizations that have benefitted from the IGF, and from the free and open Internet, to join us in our support.
Governments, the private sector and others have reaped the benefits of the work of the IGF, and now it’s time to give something back. I was pleasantly surprised at the level of support expressed for the IGF at NETmundial. The draft outcome document from NETmundial even calls for a strengthened IGF, including, “ensuring guaranteed stable and predictable funding for the IGF is essential.”
If your organization expressed support for the IGF at NETmundial, or has benefitted from fora like the IGF, I call on you to put their ‘money where their mouth is’. Join us by providing multi-year financial support for this important entity.
Today James Moore, the Minister of Industry, released the long-awaited digital economy strategy. As you will likely recall, in the summer of 2010, the federal government embarked on a consultation with Canadians about Canada’s digital future. In our submission to the consultation (.PDF), we made 19 recommendations to the government that we believed would help build a strong Canadian digital economy. Digital Canada 150 (.PDF), the strategy launched today, is grouped under five main thematic areas:
- Connecting Canadians
- Protecting Canadians
- Economic Opportunities
- Digital Government
- Canadian Content
There is some good content in Digital Canada 150. In particular, I was pleased to see that the government is committed to expanding broadband access in Canada to 98 per cent. While the target speed goal, five megabits per second, is not exactly ambitious, this will remedy the digital divide we reported in the .CA Factbook a couple of weeks ago. While broadband is available to 100 per cent of urban Canadians, only 85 per cent of Canadians in rural and remote areas have access. This divide is even more pronounced in the Canadian North, so I commend the government on this initiative.
In our submission, we called on the government to develop a strategy to deal with online threats and security issues, and invest in technologies that safeguard online transactions. We also called on the government to work to build trust and confidence in the Internet, online transactions and the digital economy. It appears that Digital Canada 150 delivers on this recommendation, as it states that the government will “take action so that the communications networks and devices that connect Canadians will be secure from threats, protecting the privacy of Canadian families, businesses and governments.” As the head of an organization that works at the very heart of the Internet in Canada, I would like to offer our support to make this happen.
I also find the commitment of $200 million from the Business Development Bank of Canada (BDC) to support small and medium sized businesses with digital technology adoption promising. Unfortunately, this sector has been slow to adopt technologies like the Internet. While Canadians are among the heaviest users of the Internet in the world, only 41 per cent of Canadian small businesses have a website. I’m hopeful that this number will increase with the support of the BDC.
However, there are a number of areas where the strategy comes up short. Putting aside the recommendations we made in our submission to the consultation, I am most disappointed with what Digital Canada 150 doesn’t do.
Building a strong national digital economy is not easy. It takes collaboration with a wide variety of actors, including governments, the private sector, NGOs, and academia to address the issues in a robust manner. I believe it is the role of the federal government to take on a leadership position in this work by first developing a vision toward which all actors can concentrate their efforts – a common goal. I don’t see this in Digital Canada 150; what I see is a list of activities in the digital sphere. Individually, many of them are important to build a strong digital economy. However, without a cohesive vision to guide the work of the many stakeholders toward a common goal, I’m afraid I have to say that Digital Canada 150 comes up short as a digital economy strategy.
Yes, there are challenges in a country like Canada – from our relatively small population and vast geography to our proximity to the United States and its influence, we are unique in the world. However, as Minister Moore pointed out in his speech today by referencing the building of the railway, we have been able to overcome these obstacles before in an effort to build our nation. However, we only need to look to other nations to see what can happen when a true digital strategy is enacted.
In 2000, Sweden had an Internet penetration rate of 45.5 per cent. As of 2010, that number has risen to 92.5 per cent, the result of a concerted effort on the part of the Swedish government that included a robust digital strategy. In 2006, South Korea was the first country in the world to achieve an Internet penetration rate over 50 per cent, yet only six years earlier their rate was a meager 15 per cent. Today, they have one of the highest Internet penetration rates in the world. Again, this is the result of a broad and robust digital strategy.
In 2000, Canada was a digital leader, ranking at the top of almost every indicator by which one would measure a digital economy. In my business, a critical measure of success of a nation’s digital economy is a mix of broadband speed and price. Broadband speed and price are a nation’s ‘digital currency’, making it a more attractive place for start-ups and investment. On that measure, Canada now ranks in the bottom third compared to its OECD counterparts, 19th out of 34. Sweden and South Korea, on the other hand, have been in the top five for years now. Furthermore, we now rank 16th globally for Internet penetration, a measure we once dominated.
The digital economy, and Canada’s digital future, is too important to be left to a series of activities that may or may not relate to one another. We have seen time and time again what happens when leaders get too focussed on day-to-day activities instead of focussing on a strategic direction. Some of Canada’s best and brightest companies fell victim to it – think Blackberry or Nortel. Canadians are an innovative people. We built a nation out of one of the largest and most unforgiving lands in the world by building a railroad. We can do the same in the digital world.
Do you have any thoughts about Digital Canada 150? Please let me know in the comments.
You know an issue has political traction when Sarah Palin wades in on it. So I guess the IANA transition from U.S. government oversight is the issue du jour in the U.S., as this ever so eloquent statement was picked up by Fox News:
“Surrendering our control of the Internet is a colossal foreign policy error with long term negative repercussions for freedom.”
It’s an incredible quote, especially when you recall Ms. Palin’s wonderfully intellectual grasp on American foreign policy. She can see Russia from her house, after all (thank you, Tina Fey).
I use her words to illustrate one of the toughest challenges we face as the Internet governance community. While she can grab headlines with categorically false, inflammatory and self-serving statements, the truth is far too complex for the rest of us to boil down to a 15 second sound bite. I invite you to briefly yet effectively explain what the globalization of the IANA function means in accessible language.
Unfortunately, Ms. Palin is not alone in her politicking with IANA. A quick search found a lot of misleading and/or ill-informed articles about ICANN and IANA. Here’s a few of my favourites (certainly NOT an exhaustive list):
- The Future of Your Website Depends on This: Your business could be the biggest loser when the U.S. gives up control of the Internet next year, from Inc.
- US transfer of Internet control years in the making, fueled by foreign pressure, from Fox News.
- US government surrenders control of ICANN, from Fox News.
- How to Save the Internet: Congress can override the president’s decision to hand over control of Web addresses and domains to an international body, from the Wall Street Journal.
- GOP warns Obama plan could give China or Russia control of Internet, from the Washington Times.
I didn’t include hyperlinks to these articles because I’d rather not be a source of traffic – and therefore revenue – for these ‘media outlets’. You’ll notice the list is entirely comprised of American media. When I searched for Canadian articles about IANA, all that was returned was ‘tumbleweeds and crickets’, so to speak. Apparently the survival of the free and open Internet is not an issue for Canadians. Honestly, I’m not sure which is worse – misinformation or no information at all.
If you believe what these ‘journalists’ are trying to tell you, as an American your web presence will be controlled by “foreigners” only interested in destroying the U.S.’s global standing once the IANA contract expires. The American Internet, and along with it free speech and democracy, has been sold out to foreign interests (China, Russia, and any number of other ne’er-do-wells) by a weak president who is bowing to pressure from foreign governments. There is no evidence whatsoever to support any of this. Based in extreme partisanship, it is in my opinion the epitome of what Stephen Colbert calls ‘truthiness’.
I didn’t take these headlines from fringe blogs. These are from the Wall Street Journal, the Washington Times and Fox News, among others. And regardless of your opinion of the Fox News style of journalism, it represents a source of information (I hesitate to say news) for many, many people around the globe.
This isn’t new, nor am I saying anything we don’t already know. In his presentation to the ccNSO on Tuesday, Larry Strickling highlighted the politicization of the IANA contract by certain elements in the U.S. Let’s face facts – Sarah Palin knows as much about managing the Internet’s naming and numbering system as she does about nuclear physics. Her interest in this issue is strictly motivated by personal political gain.
All of this is not to say that there are not some good and informative articles out there. See Jonathan Zittrain’s excellent article here and this parsing of Fox News’ coverage of Bill Clinton’s statements on the subject here. However, these media outlets and blogs are on the outside of the mainstream – they are a little more academic and a little deeper in their analysis. So while there is good information out there, it is not entirely accessible to the average media consumer. Rather, it is likely skeptically viewed as left leaning and biased opinion created by out-of-touch, monocle-wearing intellectuals.
I believe journalists, American, Canadian and all others need to up their game in reporting Internet governance issues. This stuff isn’t the domain (no pun intended) of a core group of Internet geeks and wonks anymore. The issues do have a direct impact on the lives of billions of the world’s citizens. Freedom of speech and much of the global economy rely on the free and open nature of the Internet, something that has increasingly come under threat. By minimizing these important issues as little more than a partisan battle does the citizens of the world an incredible disservice.
To borrow a word from Ms. Palin, don’t misunderestimate the power of the press to influence these discussions.
I first got involved with CIRA back in 2005 when I ran for election to its Board of Directors. The organization needed to add business leadership and diversity of thought and with my financial, operational and entrepreneurial high-tech background, I felt I had something to offer.
In those ‘early’ days, the Board was dealing with many important issues, from evolving the governance policies and processes to setting the strategic direction to changing leadership for growth. It really was a pivotal time in the development of the organization. So when in 2006, I had the opportunity to take on a leadership role with CIRA as Chair, I was pleased to do so.
Once my term was over in 2008, I took a break from CIRA’s governance for a couple of years feeling confident that I had made a difference for Canada’s Internet community.
In 2010 I decided to get involved again. The organization was in a very different place in its evolution and I knew I wanted to be a part of it. I watched it grow from a start up to a national and international thought leader. From their dialogue with Canadians at the Canadian Internet Forum to the recently launched Community Investment Program and its work in establishing Internet Exchange Points, CIRA is doing some of the most innovative and important work to advance the Internet in Canada. It is a source of pride for Canadians.
Since I don’t have the time to commit to CIRA’s Board of Directors (I already have seats on a couple of boards of national Canadian organizations) I chose to join its Nomination Committee, or NomCom as we call it.
The NomCom is an interesting and important entity. CIRA has come under fire in the past for having a complex governance structure. It has a two-tiered election process with separate slates of candidates all voted on by a member base.
However, this complexity serves to ensure the best possible representation on the Board as possible. An organization like CIRA is unique. Its work is high-tech, but it is also deeply involved in the Internet policy world. It is also one of the rare organizations whose work touches the lives of almost every Canadian, either directly or indirectly.
Ensuring the interests of those stakeholders are represented is no easy task. Making sure they are represented while also ensuring the organization has the skills and knowledge it needs to develop and grow is even tougher. That’s the role of the NomCom. It is the entity that helps to build a Board of Directors that represents a wide range of views and interests. By playing this critical role, the NomCom contributes to the strategic direction of .CA and Canadian Internet policy.
As a member of the NomCom, we solicit and select qualified Candidates for the Nomination Committee Slate of CIRA’s Board of Directors Election. I’m now in my second term on the NomCom and have been the Chair of the committee since 2013.
I’m proud to say that I’ve been associated with CIRA for almost a decade now. It’s an experience I would recommend to anyone who has the skills and the desire to make a difference for Canada’s Internet community.
The opportunity to have some unique and amazing experiences is second to none, and you get to work with a diverse group of committed professionals from across the country.
In the coming months, CIRA will be issuing calls for both Board members and NomCom members. Please take the time to consider them. If you decide to put your name forward, great. If not, think about your friends and colleagues – would they, and the Canadian Internet community at large, benefit? Then please approach them. Together, we can build a better Internet for all Canadians.
Last evening the government of the United States made an announcement that sent shockwaves through the Internet governance world. The National Telecommunications & Information Administration (NTIA), a division of the Department of Commerce, publicly stated that it will not be renewing its contract with the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) past its September 2015 expiry date.
The importance of this announcement cannot be underestimated.
The Internet is, for the most part, a product of U.S. interests, including the Department of Defense and the Department of Commerce. As a result, key Internet technical infrastructure has been operating under contract administered by the NTIA. Core to these operations are the functions IANA plays – the coordination of the DNS Root and Internet Protocol addressing. As you can imagine, among the entities that comprise the Internet governance ecosystem and certain states around the world, there are many that are opposed to U.S. government interests so close to the Internet’s operations.
Interestingly this announcement, however big it is, should not be seen as entirely unexpected.
I’ve blogged before about the current governance model in place to manage the Internet. Commonly called the multi-stakeholder model, it is a bottom-up, consensus-based model that includes an organic mix of public and private entities at the regional, national and international levels – those entities that have a stake in the success of the Internet. This complex network of inter-related and inter-connected bodies that comprise the Internet governance world is analogous to a natural ecosystem. And like a natural ecosystem, the current governance structures and processes grew organically, beginning in the 1960s when the Internet was entirely under the control of the United States government.
Like a natural ecosystem, the organisms that comprise the greater governance entity exist in a delicate balance. As it is continuously evolving, the entities involved in the governance of the Internet also need to evolve. The fact is many organizations have ceased to exist or were reorganized as a result of the changing needs of the Internet ecosystem. Who remembers the International Network Working Group or the Federal Networking Council?
I should also note that it has always been the intent of the government to transfer management of these functions to ICANN. Central to this commitment was the transitioning of the so-called ‘IANA functions’.
I believe we are witnessing another evolutionary step in the development of the Internet with today’s announcement. Momentum to reform the current Internet governance structures and systems has been gaining steam for a number of years. However, much of the current discourse on Internet governance focuses on the linkage between ICANN, IANA and the U.S. government. The U.S. government backing away from that accountability role removes a considerable barrier in those discussions.
We are, however, left with an accountability vacuum. Whether or not you agreed with the role of the U.S. government, the fact is they did play an important – if only very limited in recent years – role in ensuring IANA was doing the work it was tasked with. With the removal of the U.S. government as that accountability body, mechanisms or structures will likely need to be put in place in order to assume that role. That said, I’m confident any number of solutions will be proposed over the coming months, and that we are on the cusp of settling a number of the outstanding issues that have dogged the Internet governance world for years.
In 2014, about 1,000 new generic top-level domains (gTLDs) will be added to the Internet’s root. Given that there are currently fewer than 300 TLDs total (a mix of country code TLDs like .CA and generics like .COM), it’s almost cliché to say that the domain name industry is in the midst of one of the most significant changes in its history.
A change of this magnitude isn’t just rare – the term disruptive comes to mind. As the head of the registry for .CA, my competition will increase by more than 400 per cent.
This is a sign our industry has matured – domain names aren’t the ‘domain’ of Web geeks anymore, no pun intended. We’ve gone mainstream. Our once quiet and relatively invisible industry has become a mainstay in the media. Our products are even advertised in prime time and on the Superbowl.
That’s a world apart from what we’re used to. For the past two decades, the domain name market has been characterized by high demand and relatively few competitors. Frankly, this combination has meant that selling domain names has not been overly difficult. Registries offered a product – domain names – that Registrars sold on their behalf. There was very little customer-focused activity on behalf of the registry. Even with minimal investments in marketing and sales, a registry could enjoy a reasonable market share. Double digit growth rates have been commonplace.
In this new market, we can’t assume we’re going to sell domains based on high demand alone. There’s going to be more than enough choice to meet that demand. To that end, some of the registries for the new gTLDs are approaching the industry with radically different business models. As the Internet has become more important in the day-to-day lives of many of the world’s citizens, we’re selling more than just domain names. We’re selling an identity, an experience, and not just a virtual address.
Traditionally, new domain names became available following a standard pattern: a sunrise period (for trademark holders to claim their names), land rush (for keyword names) (PDF) and general availability (first come, first served). In the current delegation of new gTLDs, this pattern has been revamped. The sunrise period still exists, albeit in a minimal timeframe. Pre-registration is being offered for some domain names that do not even exist yet, often for a very high price. Some registries are using declining scales for this pre-registration period: if you’re interested in a domain name, it can be yours in the first phase of the scale for a high price (say, $10,000). If it’s not picked up in the first phase, the fee for pre-registration drops, and so on until it is registered.
Some registries are taking this a step further by offering pre-registration for TLDs that have not successfully been awarded by ICANN yet. Each new gTLD application came with a $185,000 USD fee (plus additional fees for reviews, infrastructure costs, etc.). To date, registries have not realized any revenue from these new domains. Offering a new gTLD is a pricey endeavour, and the applicants are looking to make that money back as soon as they can through pre-registration.
There have been TLDs with defined markets since the earliest days of the Internet. For example, many ccTLDs have residency requirements (.CA included) and there are industry-specific gTLDs such as .MUSEUM. With the exception of ccTLDs, history shows limiting the potential market for a TLD has not been a recipe for success.
There are a few registries that seem to believe that will no longer be the case. In fact, some of the new gTLDs are hyper-focused. Never mind ccTLDs that limit registrations to a nation’s citizens, there are city-specific domain names like .NYC that are only available to New York City businesses, organizations and residents. Apparently, it’s no longer enough to identify as an American using a .US domain name when you’re a citizen of the city that never sleeps:
“Increasingly, the Internet is not only about what you are, but where you are. A .nyc address tells the world you are located in NYC.”
Some new gTLDs can set a registrant apart from their competition in other ways. TLDs like .PLUMBING and .CONSTRUCTION are profession-specific. .CEO appears to be counting on exclusivity to stand out in a market with 1,300+ competitors.
The potential markets for these TLDs are limited, but the registries behind them are counting on the fact that the sheer number of domain names out there (265 million and counting) makes finding a plumber, NYC business or whatever else difficult. By moving the thinking from the ‘left of the dot’ to the right of it, these registries have found an innovative way to stand out from the crowd.
Bulk registrations are now offered by Donuts, a registry that is behind hundreds of gTLD applications (307 to be exact). They have a list of about 200 new gTLDs – if your organization wants to register all of them for a particular domain name (i.e. domain.bike, domain.camera, domain.wine, etc.), it will cost you a fixed price, not domain by domain as it has traditionally worked. For the domain name Registrant, domain names are about to be a larger expense for many organizations who wish to have an online presence – or prevent others from creating that presence in their name.
A number of the new gTLD registries are offering their products with a variable pricing model. ‘Premium’ domain names – those domains that are viewed to be more in demand – will have a higher initial registration fee. While this isn’t exactly new – similar pricing models have been in place for TLDs in the past – what is new is the fact that the renewal fee will also be higher for premium names. For those on the higher end of the spectrum, this could mean many thousands of dollars per year for a single domain name.
There are some well-known newcomers to the domain name business. Google has applied for 101 new gTLDs, and Amazon has applied for 76. I find it difficult to believe they are looking to expand their already very successful businesses into domain names.
Is it possible a company like Google is entering the market with a completely different business strategy? I’d say it’s not just possible, it’s likely. They have a history of entering a market and offering a product for free that was previously charged for – think about Google Public DNS, Google Analytics (how many people pay for website analytics anymore?) or Google Drive. Google’s profits come from ad sales – they’re going to be one of the domain name newcomers to watch in the near future. Whatever their plans are, I can guarantee they’re serious, and will be a departure from traditional domain name sales.
The changes I’ve discussed above are neither good nor bad, they just are. While the incumbent domain names, country codes and generics, have enjoyed limited competition for many years, new gTLDs are changing the world we operate in. In a sense, it’s a daunting prospect for the incumbent TLD operators, CIRA included. But it’s also an exciting time for the industry. Interest in TLDs is at an all-time high. Competition is healthy in any industry, and it will result in new and innovative ways of running a registry and marketing TLDs. We’re on the cusp of a new era in the domain name industry and I’m pleased to be a part of it.
Our primary focus at CIRA is to run the .CA registry and underlying domain name system (DNS) infrastructure. We do that work very well, and as a result we have come to play a critical role in the Canadian Internet ecosystem.
As the stewards of Canada’s online identifier, we also want to be good digital citizens. I believe that includes giving back to the community when we can and where it will make a difference. It’s also part of our corporate mandate. Our Community Investment Program, or CIP, is based on Article 3 of our ‘articles of continuance’ which allows us “to develop, carry out and support any other Internet-related activities in Canada.”
For the past couple of years, we have been working with community-based groups to establish Internet Exchange Points in Canada. To date, we have helped two get off the ground, and are working with groups in other cities.
For the past four years, we have hosted the Canadian Internet Forum, an arena for dialogue with Canadians about the Internet-related issues that are important to them. And, we have supported organizations like MediaSmarts, TechU.me and Code for Kids in their work to empower youth with the skills they need to be safe and successful in an increasingly digitally-dependent world.
I’m pleased to announce that beginning today, and until February 28, we are accepting applications for funding through our CIP. Eligible agencies include community groups, not-for-profits and academic institutions with projects in mind that enhance the Internet for the benefit of all Canadians. More information about applicant eligibility and the application process is available here.
An arm’s length committee comprised of CIRA Board members and community experts will evaluate the proposals and award funds based on merit.
In the coming year, CIRA will be investing up to $1,000,000 in the Canadian Internet community. Qualifying organizations may receive funding ranging from $25,000 to as much as $100,000 for their project. While the CIP is open to a wide range of ideas, the intent is to make a lasting positive impact on how Canadians access and use the Internet for the foreseeable future.
If you know an organization that could benefit from our support, please let them know about the Community Investment Program. Together we can enhance the Internet experience for all Canadians.
CIRA is a proud supporter of MediaSmarts, Canada’s leading media literacy organization. We believe that it is important to support the development of digital literacy skills among the next generation of Canada’s digital citizens. This week, MediaSmarts is releasing the third phase of their research project called Young Canadians in a Wired World (YCWW). Matthew Johnson, the Director of Education at MediaSmarts, wrote the following guest post on Public Domain about YCWW:
It goes without saying that eight years is a long time on the Internet. Between 2005, when MediaSmarts published Phase II of our Young Canadians in a Wired World research, and 2013, when we conducted the national student survey for Phase III, the Internet changed almost beyond recognition: online video, once slow and buggy, became one of the most popular activities on the Web, while social networking became nearly universal among both youth and adults. Young people’s online experiences have changed as well, so we surveyed 5,436 Canadian students in grades 4 through 11, in classrooms in every province and territory, to find out how. Our first report drawn from this survey, Life Online, focuses on what youth are doing online, what sites they’re going to and their attitudes towards online safety, household rules on Internet use and unplugging from digital technology. (Future reports based on this data will look at students’ habits, activities and attitudes towards privacy, digital permanence, bullying, commercialization, offensive content, online relationships and digital literacy in the classroom and in the home.)
One finding that’s unlikely to be a surprise is that nearly all youth are going online. In fact, 99 percent of students surveyed have access to the Internet outside of school using a variety of devices. The biggest change since our last survey is the proliferation of mobile devices, such as tablets, smartphones and MP3 players, which give youth constant – and often unsupervised – online access.
Not only are students getting connected, they’re staying connected: more than a third of students who own cell phones say they sleep with their phones in case they get calls or messages during the night. Students do try to balance their online and offline activities: nearly all say that they sometimes choose to go offline in order to spend more time with friends and family, go outside or play a game or sport, read a book or just enjoy some solitary quiet time. More worryingly, one in six students has gone offline in order to avoid someone who is harassing them.
What are Canadian youth doing when they’re online? For one thing, they’re looking for information – primarily about things like news, sports and entertainment, but also physical and mental health issues, relationship advice and sexuality. Two-thirds of students play online games, though the games they play differ significantly: boys in grades 4-6 choose Minecraft, a game in which players build virtual environments, while girls prefer virtual worlds such as Webkinz, Moshi Monsters and Poptropica, which contain chat and social networking features. Social networking is also a popular activity: while rates are highest for older students, a significant number of younger students – one-third in Grade 5 and almost half in Grade 6 – have a Facebook account, despite the site being closed to users under 13.
Another major change involves household rules regarding online activities. Although our 2012 focus groups with parents and youth showed parents were more concerned than ever about what youth were doing online, the average number of household rules has actually declined since 2005. Despite a high awareness of perceived “stranger danger”, the number of students who have a rule at home about meeting people whom they first met online actually dropped from 2005, from two-thirds to one-half.
Consistent with our previous research, household rules have a significant positive impact on what students do online, reducing risky behaviours such as posting their contact information, visiting gambling sites, seeking out online pornography and talking to strangers online. In general, though, the number of household rules takes a sharp dive after Grade 7 and at all ages girls are more likely to report having rules about their online activities than boys. The greater number of rules placed on girls may be based on a sense that girls are more vulnerable in general, but this may also relate to the fact that the Internet is a very different place for girls than for boys: girls are less likely to agree with the statement that “the Internet is a safe place for me” and more likely to agree that “I could be hurt if I talk to someone I don’t know online”. Despite these differences, both boys and girls feel confident in their ability to look after themselves, with nine out of ten agreeing with the statement “I know how to protect myself online”.
How often students say they have an adult or parent in the room with them while online has also changed since the 2005 survey, but surprisingly – especially considering the decline in household rules and the proliferation of mobile devices – this figure has risen. As with household rules, however, the rate is higher for girls. One in five Grade 4 students never has a parent or adult with them when they are online at home, and by Grade 8 – a time when students are most at risk of encountering and getting involved in trouble online – four out of ten students never go online with a parent or other adult in the room.
Students do see their parents as a valuable resource for learning about the Internet: nearly half of students say they have learned about issues such as cyberbullying, online safety and privacy management at home. As students get older, they’re less likely to report having learned about these issues from parents and more likely to learn from teachers. A worrying number of students haven’t learned about these topics from any source: more than half of students in grades 4-6 have not learned any strategies for authenticating online information either at home or at school.
Online Life has raised many issues that call for more in-depth study. However, the evidence is clear at this early stage that despite their confidence with digital tools – or perhaps because of it – Canadian youth, and particularly elementary-aged children, need instruction in digital literacy skills and parents and teachers need to be given tools and resources to help them provide that instruction.
Click here to read the full Life Online report: mediasmarts.ca/ycww.
Young Canadians in a Wired World – Phase III: Life Online was made possible by financial contributions from the Canadian Internet Registration Authority and Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada.
The Internet is at a crossroads. And while high-profile events like the introduction of new gTLDs and revelations about governments and online surveillance may be a catalyst for recent Internet governance reform initiatives, their necessity isn’t exactly new. After all, the current structures and processes in place were set up a decade and a half ago, an eternity in Internet years.
A key step in reviewing and renewing these structures is the Panel on Global Internet Cooperation and Governance Mechanisms, announced at the recent ICANN meeting in Buenos Aires. Last week I was in London for the first meeting of this panel to chart a path forward for the ongoing successful development of the Internet.
While the current Internet governance institutions were in large part responsible for getting the first two+ billion – mostly citizens of the developed world – online, they’re likely not the right ones to get the next two billion – the citizens of the developing world – online. Those new users reside in parts of the world that have political structures that are based in philosophical underpinnings that differ greatly from ours in the west.
That’s why I think the diversity of the panel members is noteworthy – not only are many sectors and industries represented, but geographic regions as well – panelists are all corners of the earth (you can view the panel’s membership here. With that said, it must be made clear that this panel is not meant to be representative. Rather, we are group of knowledgeable individuals who are committed to the success of the Internet, and as such have come together to identify significant, potential solutions for administrating the Internet.
The variety of industries represented is also noteworthy. From current and former world leaders to senior bureaucrats, the tech community and the private sector, the diversity of voices at the table is striking. As an ‘on-the-ground’ operator present at the table, I believe that I bring a unique and important perspective. Given the diversity of viewpoints on the panel, I am confident our collective insights will ensure whatever recommendations we make as a panel will work in the real world.
The first meeting was spent identifying the desirable traits for the future administration of the Internet. Within the current governance mechanisms, what do we need to keep? What’s missing? We all agreed that some enhanced role for governments is important to ensure the future success of the Internet. How do we accomplish this? And, since we’ve moved from a place where the Internet governance discussions are ‘how it’s used’ instead of ‘how it works,’ how do we address the inherent jurisdictional issues?
When we do engage voices like governments in more discussions, a funny thing happens; you start to realize that some of the issues dividing you are sometimes just a question of semantics. As a panel, we had a discussion about the term ‘governance’ that was demonstrative of the different worlds we are trying to bridge. In the political world, the term ‘governance’ is loaded, and carries with it ideas of power and authority, certainly not the same meaning that we in the Internet world have given it. Are the terms coordination and administration more helpful moving forward?
The task is lofty – to come up with possible mechanisms and arrangements to ensure the Internet delivers on its promise of prosperity to the whole world, not just the developed one. And for someone with a business background, I’m used to having an end goal in mind, and working backwards from there. These discussions work in the opposite way – we know our starting place but we need to work our way to the end goal. I find this approach somewhat freeing – it is a much more open process – and I believe more likely to succeed without an end goal in mind.
We will meet as a panel three times – the recent December meeting, once in February and once in May. At the end of February 2014 we’ll be releasing a high level report, and our ideas will be posted for comment and input. The much anticipated Brazil Internet summit will take place after our high-level report is released but before our work as a panel wraps up, so I’m sure our recommendations will form at least a part of the discussions there.
We are at a critical point in the ongoing development of the Internet. I believe it’s healthy to review an entity’s governance processes from time to time, and most certainly when we’re at an inflection point of sorts, as we currently are.
Much in the same way the National Hockey League has had to adapt the rules of hockey to accommodate faster, stronger, more technical players, we will have to adapt the mechanisms of the Internet governance world in the face of upcoming new players – new gTLDs, the addition of two billion new users and the effect of the NSA revelations. However, there are certain characteristics that can never change – the game of hockey is still played with 12 players on the ice and three periods. Any and all changes have to be for the benefit of the game, or in this case, the good of the Internet.
I was part of a group of about 200 people who attended and update yesterday on the Montevideo statement at the Internet Governance Forum in Bali. I’d like to share a few of my observations, and offer some unsolicited advice.
First, the de facto leader and champion of the multi-stakeholder model, the United States, has been sent to the penalty box in light of the NSA surveillance revelations. I made this point when the Snowden affair first came to light, and it’s tremendously apparent at the IGF that much of the credibility the Americans had in defending the multi-stakeholder model has dissipated (at least for the time being).
That’s left us – the advocates of the multi-stakeholder model – in a bit of a leadership vacuum at critical time in the Internet’s history. We are, after all, staring down the ITU’s Plenipotentiary meeting in November 2014. We well remember the ITU’s World Conference on International Telecommunications in Dubai last December. The last thing the Internet community wants or needs is a repeat of the discussions at the WCIT – the division between the supporters of the multi-stakeholder model and its detractors became both deeper and wider. There were times when many of us were genuinely concerned about the fate of the free and open Internet during the WCIT – the multi-stakeholder model was stood poised to sustain some serious damage, however we fortunately came back from the brink.
The telecommunications world is about to head into similar discussions at the Plenipot – this is not a time where you want to be without your strongest champion and de facto (like it or not) leader.
But here we are.
Fortunately, the I* group (ICANN, the RIRs, IETF, IAB, W3C and ISOC) were able to pick up the ball that had been fumbled by the U.S. government and are attempting to fill that vacuum. While I applaud their resourcefulness, I do see a number of challenges they will have to overcome to be successful.
WARNING: as a Canadian, non-hockey sports metaphors are tough. If I mangle this one, I can’t be held responsible.
The I* ( I-star) group, and Fadi Chehadé in particular, have picked up and carried that metaphorical ball down the field. A tight group of CEOs has been leading the charge so far, without much in the way of broader consultation. I get it. That’s what we as CEOs are paid to do, and they were right to do what they did. When presented with an opportunity like this, we have to analyze the situation make an informed decision, and and keep moving.
However, their challenge will be engaging the broader community before it’s too late. If the I* group misses that opportunity, they risk jeopardizing their credibility to lead the community going forward. It would be akin to advocating for the multi-stakeholder model in a non-multi-stakeholder manner. I can already hear the Internet governance conspiracy theorists and their refrain of ICANN overreach.
Simply put, the I* folks need to pass the ball off to the broader community before it’s too late. It’s not going to be easy, but multi-stakeholderism is a messy game. The sheer number and diversity of voices that come to the table – from the technical community to civil society to end users, governments, and many more – means that we will always be dealing with competing interests and challenges with meaningful engagement.
But it is exactly that messy, at times turbulent chaos that makes the multi-stakeholder model work. At one time or another, all of those voices are critical to the success of the Internet. Don’t get me wrong. I’m not saying that everybody needs to be a full participant in these discussions. That’s not what multi-stakeholderism is about. Yes, all of those voices have a role to play, but not necessarily on every issue, all the time. Where and when appropriate, different voices come up to the surface and are included, but it is a very rare thing that all voices would be relevant on a particular issue. Those who aren’t involved need to have trust in the processes and people if we are going to be successful.
The right voices for this discussion need to be identified and included in pretty short order if we are to be successful. Finally, while it’s great we are discussing these issues, but we also need to be very pragmatic in our approach. The fact is there isn’t a lot of time between now and the Plenipot in 2014, and we’ve got a lot of work to do. If we are going to re-examine the arrangements, processes, or frameworks that have been governing the Internet for more than a decade, we need to be nothing short of strategic. And maybe it’s my business background speaking, but I’d like to know what our end game is. That’s the I* group’s other challenge – to identify and articulate what we, as the Internet community, need to accomplish.
We need answers to some fundamental questions before we get too far down this path: What problem is the ‘coalition of the willing’ solving? How do we know when we’ve been successful? How are we going to get there?
My advice to the group is to move reasonably quickly from ‘thinking’ to ‘doing”, from strategy to execution. Yes, the thinking is a critical part of the process, but lets not forget how little time we have for the doing. The first step, in my opinion, will be to develop a crisp, realistic goal. Start with the end in mind.
At yesterday’s briefing, Chris Disspain articulated what I believe is a good first step towards articulating an objective for this emerging group:
“Working together in a coalition to offer the world a multi-stakeholder-based mechanism for dealing with Internet governance issues as a viable alternative to governments or government-centric mechanisms.”
With some massaging, I think his statement could guide the group’s work. We’re off to a good start – I’m hearing a lot of positive things about this process from the people at the IGF, as well as the grumbling. I believe that the people who are leading this process have the best interest of the broader community at heart, but they need to get the broad community involved asap, and we, the community, need to pick up the ball.